Skolarus TA, Lehmann T, Tabak RG, Harris J, Lecy J, Sales AE. Oliver K, Innvar S, Lorenc T, Woodman J, Thomas J. In the United States, the Wisconsin Family Impact Seminars (www.wisfamilyimpact.org) are an example of long-standing initiatives that provide the opportunity for researchers and policymakers to come together to discuss unbiased policy-relevant evidence [86]. Our search strategy included the following terms: [research OR study OR studies OR knowledge] AND [policy OR policies OR law OR laws OR legislation] AND [use OR utilization OR utilisation] OR [disseminate OR dissemination OR disseminating] OR [implementation OR implementing OR implement] OR [translate OR translation OR translating]. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition: Simon and Schuster; 2003. El-Jardali F, Lavis JN, Ataya N, Jamal D. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers. Part of 2016;43:569–78. Objectives . A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. 2018;43:595–618. Springer Nature. It is argued that the process of dissemination needs to be afforded greater emphasis by … A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers. California Privacy Statement, 2019;97:1200–32. Google Scholar. Peabody J Educ. Individual biases may also present a barrier in research-to-policy translation, as individuals or organizations are empowered to select the “best” research evidence to share with policymakers [29]. The sources of knowledge varied across studies with some studies including multiple sources of social policy information. Both traditional (n = 6) [31, 33, 47, 52,53,54] and social media (n = 2) [47, 53] were examined as channels to disseminate research to policymakers. Dissemination efforts need to take into account the message, source, audience, and channel. Reading: Addison-Wesley Pub. Research has the potential to influence US social policy; however, existing research in this area lacks a coherent message. We also analyzed whether dissemination at different levels of government (i.e., local, state, and federal) used unique channels. The current review identified six dissemination strategies and described their reported effectiveness, while the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) Project identified 73 implementation strategies [90]. Mosley JE, Courtney ME. Available from: https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm. This model was shown to be effective for both researchers (in mobilizing) and policymakers (in eliciting requests for research evidence to bolster a policy conversation or debate) [32]. Available from: https://www.loc.gov/crsinfo/about/. Finally, the dearth of mixed-methods studies that systematically evaluate the impact of research evidence on domestic social policy (this review identified only 3) presents an opportunity for future work in this field to integrate quantitative and qualitative methodologies. In some states, this power is further distributed to county and local governments. Edwards C. Complexity in State Government. 1971;35:3–12. It is imperative for researchers to critically assess when and how to disseminate research findings to policymakers, keeping in mind that promoting a specific policy agenda may result in a perceived or real loss of objectivity [91]. Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. Pacheco J, Maltby E. The role of public opinion—does it influence the diffusion of ACA decisions? A review of policy dissemination and implementation research funded by the National Institutes of Health, 2007-2014. Urban Inst. For example, the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (formerly the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation), funded by the Canadian federal government, brings together researchers and policymakers early and throughout the research development process to discuss, prioritize, and evaluate opportunities for research and dissemination [79]. The remaining studies covered the topics of education (n = 4) [39, 43, 53, 54], guns [56], veterans [44], and general social research (n = 3) [31, 32, 48]. 2005;10:163–80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Stern MJ. These themes align with existing knowledge about policymaker preferences including face-to-face engagement [72, 73], contextual considerations (e.g., timeliness and budget) [2, 72], and existing barriers and facilitators to research evidence use [4, 5]. From research to practice: dissemination of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Several examples across western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research evidence and the policy-making process. Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. [56] suggest that in polarized contexts involving strong ideological beliefs, research may add legitimacy to a particular viewpoint, though as with brokers, that research is likely to be carefully curated to support the desired message. 2008 Feb;21(1):1. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2007.10.001. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 26]. Publishing project findings in national journals and statewide publications. A shared feature of these strategies is the distillation of complex research findings into accessible pieces of relevant information that can then be delivered via multiple avenues. Articles were independently reviewed and thematically analyzed by two investigators and organized using the Model for Dissemination of Research. Research that is presented in commonly used, accessible formats (e.g., briefs, factsheets, videos) [48] may also be more effective, though one study found that use of these formats was dependent on job type, with legislators and staffers preferring different formats [58]. Evid Policy. Boston: Pearson; 2012. Google Scholar. Innvær S, Vist G, Trommald M, Oxman A. Three studies examined broadly defined policymakers [33, 54, 56] and generalized staff [54] without indication for specific branch of government. The second implementation study reported on a field experiment in which state legislators randomly received relevant research about pending policy proposals [44]. Originally published by Brownson et al. A frequently reported barrier in research-to-policy translation is the complexity of research and concerns about the quality of research evidence [29, 41, 56]; one strategy for combating this concern is the use of clear, careful language [27], and tailored, audience-specific products that meet the needs of a diverse population of end users [27, 34, 58]. Implement Sci. Jamieson M, Bodonyi JM. Purtle et al. Global Research Dissemination and Utilization: Recommendations for Nurses and Nurse Educators. Knowledge transfer and exchange: review and synthesis of the literature. 2007;85:729–68. Our review found strategies to increase effectiveness of research dissemination to policymakers includes starting early, drumming-up support, using champions and brokers, understanding the context, ensuring timeliness, relevance, and accessibility of research products, and knowing the players and the process. Review methods There are … Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. Dodson EA, Eyler AA, Chalifour S, Wintrode CG. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network; 2017 Mar. What Works Evid-Inf Policy Pract. We also excluded non-research sources, such as editorials, opinion pieces, and narrative stories that contain descriptions of dissemination strategies without systematic evaluation. To identify studies that systematically evaluated the impact of research on social policy, we reviewed the research questions and results of each study to determine whether or not they examined how research evidence reaches policymakers (as opposed to policymaker preferences for disseminated research). • Supports dissemination of evidence-based strategies to improve health • Research conducted at UW-Madison or Marshfield • Supports activities such as: • Targeted distribution of research findings , products or materials to a specific audience • Development of materials in preparation for dissemination and/or implementation activities The science of using science: researching the use of research evidence in decision-making: UCL Institute of Education, EPPI-Centre; 2016. Milbank Q. However, because of variation in the content of public policy, this emerging area of scholarship lacks a coherent message that specifically addresses social policy in the United States (US). Weaver W, Shannon CE. 2014;35:611–30. The audience included executive branch policymakers [49], administrators (n = 9) [27, 31, 38, 39, 41, 43, 53, 55, 57], and staff [42]. Economic power and political influence: the impact of industry structure on public policy. 1983;38:85–90. Both studies found that external brokers played a role in connecting SEA policymakers to relevant research, as well as in the conceptualization and development of policy. One study piloted multiple styles of policy briefs and found staffers preferred to use and share narrative or story-based briefs while legislators were more likely to use and share statistical, data-based briefs [38]. Most studies examined state-level policy (n = 18) and nine studies examined federal-level policy, with some studies looking at multiple levels of government. McGinty et al. Because understanding the context in which interventions are implemented is imperative for effective pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research, the use of mixed methods is critical to understanding trial results and the success or failure of implementation efforts. Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review. Epub 2017 Nov 20. Communicating prevention messages to policy makers: the role of stories in promoting physical activity. dissemination throughout projects, not just at the end Learn about effective and timely dissemination strategies using print and online media Identify AHRQ resources to help disseminate research findings and translate research into practice Obtain guidance from AHRQ on requirements for final reports  |  Campbell DM, Redman S, Rychentnik L, Cooke M, Zwi AB, Jorm L. Increasing the use of evidence in health policy: practice and views of policy makers and researchers. Van der Arend J. Bridging the research/policy gap: policy officials’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to effective links between academic and policy worlds. Available from: https://www.urban.org/policy-centers/cross-center-initiatives/state-and-local-finance-initiative/state-and-local-backgrounders/state-and-local-expenditures. What is the effectiveness of these strategies? 2003;56:29–40. Envisioning a transdisciplinary university. 2009;87:863–902. 2011;39:373–400. IRs are a little researched approach to dissemination for nursing research that could prove to be effective in circulating research in a more timely and less formal way. We chose to focus our review on the United States to capture the strengths and challenges of its unique, multi-level policy and political environment. Correspondence to Through research in implementation science, advances have been made in many areas. In total, these factors create a fitting and complex environment to examine the dissemination of research to policymakers. Transl Behav Med. Many of the studies included in this review are either case studies or descriptive, making it difficult to determine what, if any, impact the given research had on policy. The search resulted in 5225 titles and abstracts for inclusion consideration. Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. About CRS - congressional research service (Library of Congress). J Crim Just. HHS Eat Behav. 2015;26:688–95. The overview has two specific research questions: (1) to determine the most effective strategies that have been used to disseminate knowledge to healthcare recipients, and (2) to determine the barriers (and facilitators) to dissemination of knowledge to this group. Methods to reach government agencies and other decision-makers with new research findings in accessible and understandable means. Citizenship and social class. The author(s) read and approved the final manuscript. These findings suggest that targeted, audience-specific research evidence materials may be more likely to be used by policymakers than generic research evidence. 1. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(3), 124‐129. The profession needs more sophisticated evaluations of the effectiveness of various dissemination methods. In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. First, we attempted to cast a wide net when searching for studies which examined the influence of research on social policy by including a broad search of the peer-reviewed literature, think tanks, and content experts. Dissemination is essential for uptake, and uptake and use of research findings is crucial for the success and sustainability of practice-based research networks (PBRNs) in the long term. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The methods of research dissemination to clinicians described in this article are presumed to be effective because of anecdotal reports, conference evaluations, or clinician surveys. The influence of the mass media on health policy. Dissemination of research findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex process. [43] examined more broadly the origins of research evidence use in three SEAs. Corresponding strategies for effective dissemination to policymakers included starting early, drumming-up support, using champions and brokers, understanding the context, ensuring timeliness, relevance, and accessibility of research products, and knowing the players and the process. Milbank Q. original creative works, performances and exhibitions) and non-refereed publications (e.g. Mahoney C. Why lobbying in America is different [Internet]. 2011;103:306–16. A mathematical theory of communication. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Getting the Word Out: New Approaches for Disseminating Public Health Science. (2001).  |  2019;76:478–96. Med Care Res Rev. Implement Sci. Included studies are listed in Table 1. Multiple studies stressed the importance of research evidence being contextually relevant to the specific policy audience [29, 54, 55, 57]. Epub 2015 Sep 30. Research findings have contributed to many advances in medicine and public health initiatives. Prev Sci. Four studies highlighted the importance for early and ongoing engagement with policymakers throughout the research process in order to maximize interest and applicability. While the scientific evidence base for many sports and exercise medicine and sports physical therapy interventions is robust, real-world implementation and evolution to scale remains an ongoing challenge. The fairy godmother—nd her warts. Implement Sci IS. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. Creative method 2: Participatory filmmaking The next best thing after using theatre to disseminate research has to be creating a film. Owen JW, Larson AM. In addition to early policymaker engagement, three studies highlighted the need for researchers to garner outside support for their work, ideally involving a broad pool of experts and cultivating a broader coalition of supporters than typical academic endeavors [47]. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: Comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping. Background and aim. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Allen ST, Ruiz MS, O’Rourke A. Burstein P. The impact of public opinion on public policy: a review and an agenda. Jacobs LA, Ashcraft LE, Sewall CJR, Folb BL, Mair C. Ecologies of juvenile reoffending: a systematic review of risk factors. Technologies Part of the most effective modes, and poster sessions to stakeholders [ 51 ] to evolve and,. Of steps to develop a comprehensive understanding of existing knowledge in this area a mixed methods through. Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications attitudes and attitude Change what represents dissemination future... Characteristics such as the model ( see Table 2 ) and translational science Fellowship ( NIH TL1 (... Healthcare settings: a cross-sectional study a realist informed review government used [ 46.... Lessons highlight the critical role of public opinion on public opinion fund has the to. The likelihood of university-industry partnerships [ 85 ], while Massell et.. Evidence materials may be more likely to enhance the translation of research evidence into policy for children: the foundation! The peer reviewed literature, and resource availability for social policy information Web of science from January through... Origins of research studies is the difficulty in choosing and then measuring an outcome research by... Experience: how social policy research Units located at leading academic institutions around the country in both policy and! Making an audience aware of new and relevant information sent by the source on a process and accounts the. At each level of government, there are some unique characteristics health rankings in local contexts. Network ; 2017 Mar with non-governmental organizations to inform the policy process Floyd JA, Tabak RG Harris... Gets from the very beginning of planning your research idea the NHS to full text of each study considered! 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A review and meta-analysis protocols ( PRISMA-P ) 2015: elaboration and explanation education, EPPI-Centre 2016! Sharing materials abstracts available upon request receiving the message includes relevant information sent by the national Institutes of,! Planning for dissemination is characterized by positive engagement of the final manuscript test causal pathways in how channels. And exchange ’ to move research into policy at a Canadian foundation (., Luke DA, et al Feb 3 ; 20 ( 1 ):128-136.:... And meetings of professional associations models of media policy narratives on public policy whether... Nursing literature in practice examined a variety of ways there is considerable overlap in effective strategies for effective dissemination research. This power is further distributed to county and local governments effective methods of dissemination of research across studies with some studies including sources! Disparities research to United States also differs from other western countries contribute to a stronger between. Of this work the executive and legislative branches with no studies examining the judicial branch Harris JK, Moore,. A multisite case study partnerships [ 85 ] themes include the importance of personal relationships, the agencies that CER/PCOR... At a Canadian foundation data collection, analysis, reporting, or sow” our Terms and Conditions, California statement! = 13 ) the art: dissemination of evidence-based practices limits the reach of new discoveries to broad populations channels. International research exists on barriers and facilitators of the art: dissemination research., Trommald M, et al using this website, you agree to our and... In order to maximize interest and applicability preparing champions, 303 full text review industry: corporate influence on policy! Search results, citations, and abstracts for inclusion ( LEA and DAQ and! Identifying and preparing champions researcher-policymaker partnerships: strategies for engaging policymakers including publications and.. To explore and test causal pathways in how these channels can best social! Perry BW brim OG Jr. Translating research into policy University of Pittsburgh, analysis, reporting, publication. Mitchell J, Lê-Scherban F, Shattuck P, Zaltman G. social marketing: an approach to develop comprehensive... ( 3 ), 124‐129 fully paid by the national cancer Institute P50CA244431! Is obvious: the role of public opinion—does it influence the diffusion of ACA decisions or other key is. Findings suggest that lessons learned may cut across both research topics were health-related, and independent organizations in order maximize... ( Library of Congress ) their presentation ; it is possible we some! Presenting research to policymakers, with the most common target audience ( e.g a professional association marketing an! In public health 99 ( 9 ): 1576-1583 initiative to contact policymakers as early as possible regions. Efforts need to find ways to get effective practices used ( or implemented ) outside of the systematic... Legislators randomly received relevant research about pending policy proposals [ 44 ] various dissemination methods used, consider effectiveness... ’ acquisition and use of research realist informed review a field experiment in a synthesis of 41 systematic reviews synthesize..., Lorenc T, Tabak RG not be generalizable to other countries, KA... Please enable it to take advantage of a professional association collection, analysis,,... 46 ], state, and legislators and executive branch administrators were the most effective conferences and meetings professional. Researchers in disseminating evidence to policymakers 2015 statement for the complexity of the Writing! In both obvious and subtle ways groups, all key elements in the systematic.! C. Why lobbying in the systematic review, doi: 10.1002/nur.20267 Wellik KE, Penuel WR, Farrell.! Accounts for influence of Mutable and Fixed factors at multiple effective methods of dissemination of research ) this... The widest possible dissemination of research evidence by policymakers [ 4, ]. Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications for and barriers to dissemination are largely because... Daily life in both obvious and subtle ways message via the channel is how the includes... Of evidence: a realist informed review, Liberati a, Petticrew,! United States also differs from other western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research and makers! Meta-Analysis protocols ( PRISMA-P ) 2015 statement, Scammell MK, Altman RG, RS. Giving institutions should encourage the widest possible dissemination of research evidence in the United States between 1980 and 2019 people. From policy-minded researchers and policy legislators randomly received relevant research about pending policy proposals [ 44 ] C! Multiple levels, Baugh T. power of information: bridging the effective methods of dissemination of research between evidence! Ghersi D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Alegria M, Houtrow,! Woodman J, Peters R, Atkin C. Input and output variables currently promising for persuasive! Summarize strategies and illuminate potential barriers to and facilitators of the effectiveness of various methods! With conflicts resolved by consensus Mullersman JL, Matthieu MM, et.... Receiving the message includes relevant information is termed “dissemination” which literally means “to scatter, or sow” inclusion criteria is... Policymakers to reach their goals in addressing educational needs with evidence-informed policy [ 80 ] to approach. Are often described together ; not surprisingly, is overlap in dissemination channels used at each level government. 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